Intro to Functional Testing

The not-so-complete definition of Functional Testing :

It is a type of software testing that focuses on verifying that a software application or system functions correctly according to its specified requirements. It examines the software’s functionality to ensure that it performs the intended tasks and produces the expected results.

Key characteristics of functional testing are:

  1. Black-Box Testing: Functional testing is typically conducted from an external perspective, without detailed knowledge of the software’s internal code or structure. Testers interact with the software as end-users would, using the provided interfaces.
  2. Requirement-Based: Functional tests are designed based on the functional requirements and specifications of the software. These requirements outline what the software should do and what features it should have.
  3. Positive and Negative Testing: Functional testing includes both positive testing, where testers verify that the software performs as expected when used correctly, and negative testing, where testers intentionally use the software incorrectly to check how it handles errors and invalid inputs.
  4. Complete Coverage: The goal is to ensure that all specified functions and features of the software are thoroughly tested. This includes testing various input scenarios and boundary cases.
  5. Manual and Automated Testing: Functional testing can be performed manually by testers who interact with the software and validate its behavior. Additionally, automated testing tools can be used to automate repetitive test cases and increase test coverage.

Functional testing can be categorized into different types or levels, including:

  1. Unit Testing: Testing individual components or functions of the software in isolation to ensure they work as expected.
  2. Integration Testing: Evaluating the interactions between different components or modules to ensure they function correctly together.
  3. System Testing: Testing the entire system to verify that it meets the specified requirements.
  4. User Acceptance Testing (UAT): Conducted by end-users or stakeholders to ensure the software meets their needs and expectations.
  5. Regression Testing: Repeated testing of the software after changes or updates to ensure that new changes do not break existing functionality.

Functional testing is a crucial phase in the software development life cycle as it helps identify issues related to the software’s functionality, such as incorrect calculations, data processing errors, and improper user interface behavior. This type of testing ensures that the software delivers the intended value to users and meets business objectives.

Thanks for reading and happy learning!

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